Ecology II

 

Host preference

Woody substrates lying on the ground can be identified at the generic level by the microanatomy of the wood with different literature (e.g., Bukatsch & Jung, Hassler & Hirschmann, Schweingruber). Also the appearance of bark (if present) may help, particularly concerning Tilia. The data presented in the list below all refer to such identified substrate.

S. austriaca most commonly grows on Alnus (Baral 1984, Pidlich-Aigner 1999, Matočec & Kuan 2007). Pidlich-Aigner showed that only A. incana is inhabited, but never A. glutinosa. Salix and Acer are also frequently colonized. Alnus and Salix are peferably colonized in submontane areas while Acer as substrate is restricted to montaneous and subalpine areas. More rarely inhabited substrates are Sambucus, Corylus, and Ulmus. Robinia is very frequently noted as host, but exclusively for easten and south-eastern parts of Europe.

Coniferous substrate was very rarely encountered. Picea sitchensis was reported by Butterfill & Spooner (1995), Picea abies by Matočec & Kuan (2007), and Abies alba by Perić & Perić (2007), always for S. austriaca.

S. jurana and S. dudleyi show a very high preference for Tilia. T. platyphyllos is indeed the only known substrate of S. jurana, and Tilia americana is strongly favoured by S. dudleyi. Harrington & Potter (1997: 266) doubted the substrate specifity in Sarcoscypha. They found S. jurana also on substrates other than Tilia, but without giving detailed data (perhaps in Harrington 1996?). I strongly doubt this since substrates are often misidentified by collectors.

S. coccinea shows the highest substrate amplitude. Despite of this, the inhabited host genera are predominantly different from the other Sarcoscypha species. Favoured substrates are Rosaceae (mainly Sorbus and Prunus), Fagus, Carpinus, Corylus, Salix and Ulmus. Fraxinus as a host was long doubted by me since reports repeatedly turned out to be erroneous. However, on the Netherlands polders S. coccinea is actually regularly found on that host, also a recent find near Heilbronn (S-Germany) was on Fraxinus. Quercus as substrate is so far mainly known for S. coccinea and especially reported for the mediterranean belt (Qu. ilex, G. Garcia pers. comm.) and for the western part of N-America (Harrington 1990). Harrington reported ensheathed ascospores in N-American S. coccinea, a character never observed in European collections. This peculiarity together with molecular data (Harrington 1998) indicate that S. coccinea in N-America might deserve distinction at varietal or even species level.

S. macaronesica is predominantly found on Lauraceae. Records from the mediterranean area on Quercus ilex by Matočec & Kuan (2007) need further investigation as to the difficult separation from S. coccinea.

 

Table of hosts (* = 1-3, ** = 4-12, *** = 13-36, **** = 37-100, ***** = >100 records)

 (this table includes, besides personal data, those of Pidlich-Aigner, Matočec & Kuan, Perić & Perić, van Duuren and others)

 

 

austriaca

jurana

coccinea

macaronesica

dudleyi

occidentalis

Acer

****

 

*

 

 

*

Alnus

*****

 

* 

 

 

 

Betula

*

 

 

 

 

 

Carpinus

 *

 

***

 

 

 

Cornus

**

 

 

 

 

 

Corylus

**

 

****

 

 

 

Conifers

*

 

 

 

 

 

Fagus

 **

 

****

 

 

 

Fraxinus

 *

 

**

 

 

 

Juglans

 

 

*

 

 

 

Lauraceae

 

 

 

**

 

 

Ostrya

 

 

*

 

 

 

Populus

*

 

 

 

 

 

Quercus

 *

 

**

 *

 

 

Rhamnus

*

 

 

 

 

 

Rosaceae (woody)

**

 

****

 *

 

 

Robinia

*****

 

*

 

 

 

Rubus

 

 

*

 

 

 

Salix

*****

 

***

 

 

 

Sambucus

***

 

 

 

 

 

Tilia

 

*****

* 

 

**

 

Ulmus

*

 

***

 

 

 

Viburnum

 

 

*?

 

 

 

 

 

Plant communities connected to Sarcoscypha species in Central Europa and Macaronesia

 

S. austriaca:

 

community

typical plants

topography

geology

 

Alnetum incanae

Alnus incana

(colline to)

 submontaneous Auwald

gneis, granite, Kieselkalk, Molasse, Kalknagelfluh, Lss, basic brown soil

 

Aceri-Fagetum

Acer pseudoplatanus

 montaneous to subalpine rivulets

 

Salicetum

Salix

river banks

 

 

Robinietum

Robinia pseudoacacia

colline area (E-Europe)

 

 S. jurana:

 

community

typical plants

topography

Geology

 

Fraxino-Aceretum pseudoplatani

Phyllitis scolopendrium, Lunaria rediviva, Tilia platyphyllos

rocky creeks, N-exposed slopes, shady valleys

Jura malm, basalt, strongly basic brown soil

 

Adoxo moschatellinae-Aceretum

(in Baral 1984 as Aceri-Fraxinetum)

 

 

 

Tilio-Taxetum

(Croatia)

 

 

 

S. coccinea:

 

community

typical plants

topography

geology

 

Ulmo glabrae-Aceretum pseudoplatani

Allium ursinum, Hepatica nobilis, Corydalis sp., Gagea lutea

river banks, N-exposed slopes

alluvial

 

Hordelymo-Fagetum

Allium ursinum, Asarum europaeum, Leucojum vernum, Ranunculus ficaria

base of dry valley

unt. Muschelkalk, Auelehm

 

S. macaronesica:

 

community

typical plants

topography

geology

 

Lauretum canariense

Laurus azorica, Ocotea foetens, Persea indica

N-exposed slopes

volcanic

 

 

180 panorama of Fraxino-Aceretum pseudoplatani with Phyllitis scolopendrium, S. jurana

Luxemburg, Manternach-Fielsmillen, 6.II.2005, phot. G. Marson

 

 

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