Key to the seven accepted European (incl. Macaronesia) and N-American taxa

(The key data refer to living mature ascospores and asci. Please note that LBs fuse to large aggregates in dead ascospores)

 

A. Ascospores *(17-)19-21 m long, with one or several large LBs 1-4 m diam. in each half, poles slightly truncate, nuclear region constantly lateral, without emvelope, conidia of anamorph produced on conidiophores emerging from ascospores, *5.5-6.5 x 3 m, bi- or multiguttulate, apothecia 2.5-5 mm diam., continental and atlantic N-America, e.g. on Acer ... S. occidentalis

- Ascospores min. 21-30 m long, nuclear region more central, apothecia larger, temperate Europe and N-America .. B

 

B. Ascospores in front view truncated or distinctly indented (notched) at the ends, in older apothecia with or without conidia produced on conidiophores emerging from the ascospores, hairs often wavy (sinuous) to coiled or curled .. C

B. Ascospores in front view at best in dead material in some spores very slightly truncated at the ends, never indented, in older apothecia ascospores never forming conidia, hairs more or less straight .. D

 

C. Ascospores with one 5-6.5(-7.5) m large LB near each end (somtimes also two to four (2-)3-5(-6) m large LBs), usually with an evanescent mucilaginous envelope surrounding the entire spore (living material!), envelope within living asci compressed by forming caps at the spore ends and partly also on the sides, conidia only formed on mycelium, never in hymenium, *7-15 x 2.5-3.5 m, containing a few small LBs near each end (low lipid content), excipular hairs straight or sinuous to coiled, montaneous Europe, highly basic soil, restricted to Tilia ... S. jurana

C. Ascospores with c. 10-20 LBs 1.5-3.5(-4.5) m diam. near each end, usually with a small mucilaginous cap on each end (living material!), no envelope on the sides, in older apothecia germinating by (1-)2(-4) conidiophores that produce conidia *((?8.5-))(11-)12-16(-19)((-22)) x (4-)4.5-5.5(-6.5) m, multiguttulate (high lipid content), excipular hairs strikingly irregularly sinuous to curled, colline to subalpine-boreal Europe & central to eastern N-America, slightly basic soil, mainly on Alnus, Salix, Acer, Robinia ... S. austriaca

 

D. Ascospores predominantly *22-33 x 9-11.5 m, with several large LBs (0.5-)1-2(-3) m diam. near each end, ascocarps 6-20(-30) mm diam., Macaronesia, mainly on Lauraceae ... S. macaronesica

- Ascospores predominantly *25-40 x 11-12-14 m, ascocarps 10-90 mm diam. .. E

 

E. Ascospores mature always without mucilaginous envelope, with several larger LBs 1-3 m diam. near each end, apothecial margin often finely hairy or crenulate, atlantic Europe, mainly on Rosaceae, Fagus, Corylus, Ulmus (in mediterranean on Quercus with slightly smaller spores) ... S. coccinea

- Ascospores with an entire envelope forming rather large polar mucilaginous caps, N-America .. F

 

F. Ascospores with several large LBs 1.5-3.5 m diam. near each end, ozeanic N-America, mainly on Quercus S. aff. coccinea

- Ascospores with one or several large LBs c. (2-)4-5(-6) m diam. near each end, north-atlantic N-America, mainly on Tilia ... S. dudleyi

 

 

Synoptic tables on characters and ecology

 

1. Table of diagnostic characters (* = living state)

 

 

austriaca

jurana

dudleyi

coccinea

macaronesica

occidentalis

Ap. [mm]

10-80(-140)

10-50(-75)

10-80(-90)

10-40(-80)

6-20(-30)

2.5-20

Ascosp. [*, m]

(22-)26-29-36-40(-50)

x (11.5-)12-15(-16)

(23.5-)25-27-33-38

x (11-)12-15

23-25-33-40

x (11-)12-14(-15.5)

(24.5-)27-35-43(-51)

x (10-)11-14(-14.5)

(21-)22-23-29-33(-40)

x (8.5-)9-11.5(-13)

(17-)18-21

x 10-11.5(-12.5)

LBs [m]

1.5-3(-4.5)

(5-)6-7.5

(2-)4-5(-6)

1-3

(0.5-)1-2(-3)

1-4

Ascosp.

Image

(*)

 

 

Envelope

--- / polar caps

entire envelope

entire envelope

---/(+)

---

---

Germi-

nation

on water agar

normal germ tube

Conidia

[*, m]

(11-)12-16(-19) x (4-)4.5-5.5(-6.5)

c. 7-15 x 2.5-3.5

3.5-5.2 x 2.5-3

4-5.5(-6.5) x

2.2-2.7(-3)

?

5.5-6.5 x 3

Conidial

Image

(*)

?

 

 

?

 

 

 

2. Table of ecological differences

 

CE=Central Europe

austriaca (CE)

jurana (CE)

dudleyi

coccinea (CE)

macaronesica

occidentalis

Altitude [m]

 

(200-)300-1100(-1600)

200-700

?

100-720

500-1000

?

Phenology

(II)II-V

XI-V

 

(X)XI-III(-IV)

XII-III(-VI)

(II-)VI-VIII(-X)

Main Hosts

Alnus, Salix, Acer, Robinia

Tilia

Tilia, ???

Fagus, Ulmus, Corylus, Salix, Quercus, Rosaceae

Lauraceae, ?Ardisia

AcerCarya???

Geology

little to medium basic

highly basic

?

medium basic

volcanic

?

Distribution

Europe, N-America

Central Europe

N-America

Europe (N-America)

Macaronesia

N-America

 

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